Monday, December 2, 2019

Technology and the Future of Work Essay Example For Students

Technology and the Future of Work Essay Every society creates an idealised image of the future a vision that serves as a beacon to direct the imagination and energy of its people. The Ancient Jewish nation prayed for deliverance to a promised land of milk and honey. Later, Christian clerics held out the promise of eternal salvation in the heavenly kingdom. In the modern age, the idea of a future technological utopia has served as the guiding light of industrial society. For more than a century utopian dreamers and men and women of science and letters have looked for a future world where machines would replace human labour, creating a near workerless society of bundance and leisure. (J Rifkin 1995 p. 42) This paper will consider developments in technology, robotics, electronic miniaturisation, digitisation and information technology with its social implications for human values and the future of work. It will argue that we have entered post modernity or post Fordism, a new age technological revolution, which profoundly effects social structure and values. We will write a custom essay on Technology and the Future of Work specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Some issues that will be addressed are: elimination of work in the traditional sense, longevity, early retirement, the elimination of cash, the restructuring of education, industry nd a movement to global politics, economics and world government. In particular this paper will suggest that the Christian Judao work ethic with societys goals of full employment in the traditional sense is no longer appropriate, necessary or even possible in the near future, and that the definition of work needs to be far more liberal. It argues that as a post market era approaches, that both government and society will need to recognise the effects of new technology on social structure and re-distribute resources, there will need to be rapid development of policies to assist appropriate social djustments if extreme social unrest, inequity, trauma and possible civil disruption is to be avoided. Yonedji Masuda (1983) suggests we are moving from an industrial society to an information society and maintains that a social revolution is taking place. He suggests that we have two choices Computopia or an Automated State, a controlled society. He believes that if we choose the former, the door to a society filled with boundless possibilities will open; but if the latter, our future society will become a forbidding and a horrible age. He optimistically predicts our new future society will be computopia which he describes as xhibiting information values where individuals will develop their cognitive creative abilities and citizens and communities will participate voluntarily in shared goals and ideas. Barry Jones (1990) says we are passing through a post-service revolution into a post- service society which could be a golden age of leisure and personal development based on the cooperative use of resources. Jeremy Rifkin (1995) uses the term The Third Industrial Revolution which he believes is now beginning to have a significant impact on the way society organises its economic activity. He describes it as the third and final stage f a great shift in economic paradigm, and a transition to a near workless information society, marked by the transition from renewable to non-renewable sources of energy and from biological to mechanical sources of power. In contrast to Masuda, Jones and Rifkin, Rosenbrock et al. (1981) delved into the history of the British Industrial Revolution, and they concluded firmly that we are not witnessing a social revolution of equivalent magnitude, because the new information technology is not bringing about new ways of living. They predicted that we are not entering an era when work becomes largely unnecessary, here will be no break with the past, but will be seeing the effect of new technology in the next 20 years as an intensification of existing tendencies, and their extension to new areas. I suggest that Rosenbrock may come to a different conclusion with the benefit of hindsight of changing lifestyles, 15 years later, such as the persistent rise in unemployment and an aging society. Population is aging especially in developed countries and will add significantly to a possible future lifestyle of leisure. Most nations will experience a further rapid increase in the proportion of their population 65 years and older y 2025. This is due to a combination of the post war baby boom and the advances in medicine, health and hygiene technology with the availability and spread of this information. Governments are encouraging delayed retirement whereas businesses are seeking to reduce the size of their older workforce. The participation rates of older men has declined rapidly over the past forty years with the development of national retirement programmes. In many developed countries the number of men 65 and older who remain in the workforce has fallen below ten percent. Due in part to technological advances there are more older eople and they are leaving the workforce earlier. Thus this body of people will contribute to the growing numbers of people with more leisure time. Clerk 1993) Professor Nickolas Negroponte (1996) of the MIT Media Lab, points out that in percentage per capita it is those people under seventeen years of age and over fifty five who are the greatest users of the Internet, and that the Internet and other information technologies encourage democracy and global egalitarianism. Furthermore he envisions a new generation of computers so human and intelligent that they are thought of more as companions and colleagues rather than echanical aids. Jones (1990) points out a number of elements relating to the adoption of new technology that have no precedent in economic history and suggests that there is a compelling case for the rapid development of policies to assist appropriate social adjustments. He points out that manufacturing has declined as the dominant employer and that there has been a transition to a service or post industrial economy in which far more workers are employed in producing tangible and intangible services than in manufacturing goods. The cost of technology has fallen dramatically relative to the cost of human labour. Miniaturisation has destroyed the historic relationship between the cost of labour and the cost of technology, allowing exponential growth with insignificant labour input, which is leading to the reduction of labour in all high volume process work. Sargent (1994) points out that in Australia during the last decade, the rich have become richer and the poor poorer: the top 20 per cent of households received 44 per cent of national incomes in 1982, and by 1990 this had risen to 47 per cent. But the top 1 per cent received 11 per cent of incomes in 1982, and this rose to 21 per cent in 1990. Meanwhile unemployment continued to increase. Jones (1990) further points out that the new technology has far greater reliability, capacity and range than any which proceeded it. Microprocessors can be directed to do almost anything from planning a school syllabus and conducting psychotherapy to stamping out metal and cutting cloth. It is cheaper to replace electronic modules than to repair them and the new technology is performing many functions at once and generating little heat or waste and will work twenty four hours a day. The making and servicing of much precision equipment which required large skilled labour force has been replaced by electronic systems that require fewer workers. The relationship between telecommunications and computers multiplies the power of both, the power for instant, universal communications is unprecedented, consequently the influence of any individual economy to control its own destiny is reduced. All advanced capitalist nations and many third world and communist blocks are now largely interdependent, this has led to an international division of labour and the growth of the multinational corporations. The global economy is rapidly taking over from individual nations. The adoption of each new generation of technology is increasing and is rapidly becoming cheaper than its predecessor. Technologies developed in the 1960s have seen rapid rates of development, adoption and dissemination. Less developed countries can now acquire the new technologies due to the rapid decrease in cost, and the combination of their low wages and the latest technology make them formidable competitors in the global market. Almost every area of information based employment, tangible services and manufacturing is being profoundly influenced by new technology. Jones (1990) notes that few economists have addressed the many social mplications that stem from the development of science and technology. Most economists thinking is shaped by the Industrial Revolution and they are unable to consider the possibility of a radical change from the past, they give no hint that Australia has passed a massive transition from a goods based economy to a service base. Attempts to apply old remedies to new situations are simply futile. Jenkins (1985) disagrees with Jones and argues on behalf of the traditional economic model suggesting that it will continue to work well in the new era and the facts do not support any causal relationship between automation, higher roductivity, and unemployment. .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8 , .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8 .postImageUrl , .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8 , .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8:hover , .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8:visited , .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8:active { border:0!important; } .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8:active , .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8 .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u82c2146094d238575028ff336db264a8:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Advertising English EssayHe claims that it cannot be emphasised too strongly that unemployment does not stem from the installation of new technology. He says it is the failure to automate that risks jobs and the introduction of new technology will increase the total number of jobs. Further, he suggests that the primary reason for introducing new technology such as computer controlled robots is to reduce costs and to improve product quality and that lower costs mean lower prices. This results in increased demands for goods and services, which in turn generates higher output and employment and profits. He uggests that higher profits induce higher investment and research and development expenditure whilst the domestic producers of robotics and microelectronic based equipment increase output and employment. He sees the greatest problem simply in the need for occupational restructure of employment, as the need for software experts, computer programmers, technicians and engineers are likely to sharply rise. Rifkin (1995) like Jones believes that the old economic models are inappropriate in the Third Industrial Revolution and describes views similar to Jenkins as century old conventional economic wisdom and a logic eading to unprecedented levels of technical unemployment, a precipitous decline in purchasing power, and the spectre of a worldwide depression. It is questioned whether Jenkins solution of re-training will be able to replace all displaced workers. Educator Jonathon Kazol (1985) points out that education for all but a few domestic jobs starts at the ninth grade level. And for those, the hope of being retrained or schooled for a new job in the elite knowledge sector is without doubt out of reach. Even if re-training and re- education on a mass scale were undertaken, the vast numbers of dislocated orkers could not be absorbed as there will not be enough high-tech jobs available in the automated economy of the twenty-first century. A British Government backed study by Brady and Liff (1983) clearly supported this view. They concluded that jobs may be created through new technology, but it will be a very long time before the gains could offset the losses from traditional industries. Even the neo-classical economists continue to subscribe to traditional economic solutions, yet they have been met with stiff opposition over the years. In Das Kapital, Marx (McLelland 1977) predicted in 1867 that increasing the automation f production would eliminate the worker altogether, and believed the capitalists were digging their own graves as there would be fewer and fewer consumers with the purchasing power to buy the products. Many orthodox economists agreed with Marxs view in many respects, but unlike Marx, supported the notion of trickle down economics and said that by releasing workers, the capitalists were providing a cheap labour pool that could be taken up by new industries that in turn would use the surplus labour to increase their profits that would in turn be invested in new labour saving echnology which would once again displace labour, creating an upward cycle of prosperity and economic growth. Such a viewpoint may have some validity in the short-term but one must consider the longer term effects of such a cycle, it is questionable whether it could be sustained. Another important question is whether consumerism will continue unabated, whether it is a normal human condition to see happiness and salvation in the acquisition of goods and services. The word consumption until the present century was steeped in violence. In its original form the term, which has both French and English roots, meant to subdue, to destroy, to pillage. Compared with the mid 1940s the average American is consuming twice as much now. The mass consumption phenomena was not the inevitable result of an insatiable human nature or a phenomenon that occurred spontaneously, quite the contrary. Business leaders realised quite early that they needed to create the dissatisfied customer, and to make people want things that they had not previously desired (Rifkin 1996). Nations throughout the world are starting to understand the ill effects that production has on the natural environment, and the acquisition of oods and services on the psyche. With more people with less money, and a trend towards a lifestyle that emphasises quality rather than quantity, it is questionable whether consumerism will, or is desirable, to continue. Science and technologys profile grew to such an extent in the early part of this century in the United States that the supporters and proponents of technocracy were prepared to abandon democracy, and favoured rule by science rather than rule by humans and advocated the establishment of a national body, a technate, that would be given the power to assemble the nations resources and ake decisions governing production and distribution of goods and services. The image of technology as the complete and invincible answer, has somewhat tarnished in recent years with the number of technological accidents such as those which occurred in nuclear power stations at Chernobl and Three Mile Island, and threats of nuclear war and environmental degradation increasing and coming to the fore. Yet the dream that science and technology will free humanity from a life of drudgery continues to remains alive and vibrant, especially among the younger generation. During the 1930s, government officials, trade unionists, economists and usiness leaders were concerned that the result of labour saving devices, rising productivity and efficiency, was worsening the economic plight of every industrial nation. Organised labour wished to share the gains by business, such as increased profits and fewer workers required. They joined together, to combat unemployment by fighting to reducing the working week and improve wages, thus sharing the work and profits amongst the workers and providing more leisure time. By employing more people at fewer hours, labour leaders hoped to reduce unemployment brought on by labor-saving technology, stimulate purchasing power nd revive the economy. Clearly unions saw the problems resulting from technological change to lie partly, in increased leisure time (Rifkin 1996). Unemployment is steadily rising, global unemployment has now reached its highest level since the great depression of the 1930s. More than 800 million people are now underemployed or are unemployed in the world, while the rich are becoming richer and the poor getting poorer. Unemployment rates among school leavers in South Australia is as high as twenty five per cent and nine per cent for the rest of the community, which leads one to question whether the traditional conomic model is working. Trade unions have pursued their response to unemployment throughout the years with wages and salaries growing and the working week reduced, for example in the UK the working week has reduced from eighty four hours in 1820 down to thirty eight hours in 1996 (Jones 1990). Typical government response to unemployment has been to instigate public works programmes and to manipulate purchasing power by tax policies that stimulate the economy and lower tax on consumption. It can been seen in Australia that governments no longer see this as the answer, in fact there is an opposite pproach with a strong movement for a goods and services tax, to redistribute wealth, as proposed by the defeated Liberal Party of Andrew Peacock in 1992, and now being re-introduced. Many job creation schemes and retraining programmes are being abandoned by the new Australian Liberal Government of John Howard. However the power of the workers and unions in 1996 is severely restricted. The unions have lost the support of workers as reflected in their falling membership, and no longer can use the threat of direct action with jobs disappearing fast. The Liberal Government passed legislation to limit collective bargaining, with nions power of direct action becoming even more eroded and ineffective because of global competition and division of labour, and automation gave companies many alternatives. Unions have been left with no option but to support re- training, whether they believe it is the answer to unemployment or not. Today, it seems far less likely that the public sector, the unions or the marketplace will once again be able to rescue the economy from increasing technological unemployment. The technological optimists continue to suggest that new services and products resulting from the technological revolution will enerate additional employment. While this is true, the new products and services require less workers to produce and operate, and certainly will not counteract those made redundant through obsolete trades and professions. .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0 , .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0 .postImageUrl , .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0 , .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0:hover , .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0:visited , .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0:active { border:0!important; } .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0:active , .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0 .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u77dcf6003565b00f38dcd6a11d2bd0f0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Part One EssayDirect global marketing by way of the Superhighway the Internet and other forms of instant telecommunications is making thousands of middle marketing employees obsolete. For example the SA bank introduced phone banking some while ago, they now are the first bank in South Australia to trade on the Internet (http://www. banksa. com. au), and many rural banks are closing. Also, it has just een announced by the electoral commission that voting by telephone will be trialed next year, with enormous potential job loss. The widely publicised information superhighway brings a range of products, information and services direct to the consumer, bypassing traditional channels of distribution and transportation. The numbers of new technical jobs created will not compare with the millions whose jobs will become irrelevant and redundant in the retail sectors. Jones (1990) notes that there is a coy reticence from those who believe that social structure and economics will continue as in the past, to identify the ysterious new labour absorbing industry that will arise in the future to prevent massive unemployment. Jones believes that industry X if it does appear, will not be based on conventional economic wisdom but is likely to be in areas where technology will have little application, he suggests it may be in service based areas such as education, home based industry, leisure and tourism. Despite Barry Jones predictions, most service industries are very much affected by new technology. Education is fast becoming resource based with students in primary, secondary, technical and tertiary levels expected to do their own esearch and projects independent of class teachers with schools being networked and teaching through video conferencing. The conventional teacher is fast becoming obsolete, with the number of permanent teachers reducing, There are numerous examples of workers in service industries being displaced by technology. Shop fronts such as banking, real estate, travel and many more, are disappearing. Small retail food outlets continue to collapse, with the growth of supermarkets and food chains organised around computer technology, and on- line shopping from home. Designers of all types are being superseded by CAD omputer design software. Even completely automated home computerised services such as a hardware and software package called Jeeves is now available. Business management and company directors are finding voice activated lap top computer secretaries far more reliable and efficient than the human form. The New Zealand Minister for Information and Technology, Hon. Maurice Williamson MP, wrote the foreword for the paper How Information Technology will change New Zealand: On the threshold of the twenty first century we are entering a period of change as far reaching as any we have ever seen. Since the industrial revolution people have had to locate themselves in large centres where they could work with others, but now new technologies are rendering distance unimportant. The skills that are needed in tomorrows society will be those associated with information and knowledge rather than the industrial skills of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Changing technology will affect almost every aspect of our lives: how we do our jobs; how we educate our children; how we communicate with each other and how we are entertained. As Williamson points out, with the explosion of technologies , it is easy to ose sight of the larger patterns that underlie them. If we look at the fundamental ways people live, learn and work, we may gain insights about everyday life. These insights are the basis for new technologies and new products that are making an enormous difference in peoples lives. Stepping back from the day-to-day research for new electronic devices, life can be seen as being fundamentally transformed. There is development of a networked society; a pattern of digital connections that is global, unprecedented, vital, and exciting in the way that it propels the opportunities for entirely new markets and leisure. As people make digital technology an integral part of the way they live, learn, work and play, they are joining a global electronic network that has the potential for reshaping many of our lives in the coming decade. In the future, technologies will play an even greater role in changing the way people live, learn, work and play, creating a global society where we live more comfortably; with cellular phones and other appliances that obey voice commands; energy-efficient, economical and safe home environments monitored by digital sensors. There will be Smart appliances and vehicles that anticipate our needs nd deliver service instantly. We are seeing portable communications devices that work without wires; software intelligent agents that sort and synthesise information in a personally tailored format; new technologies that provide increased safety and protect our freedom, ranging from infra-red devices that illuminate the night to microwave devices that improve radar and communications. People are also learning more efficiently, with interactive video classrooms that enable one-on-one attention and learning systems that remember each students strengths and tailor lesson plans accordingly. There are lap-top computers and desktop video clips that bring in-depth background on current events with instant access to worldwide libraries and reference books with full motion pictures. People are working more productively, with virtual offices made possible by portable communications technologies and software that allows enterprise-wide business solutions at a fraction of the usual cost and in a shorter length of time with massive memory available at the desktop and lap-top levels. There are Intelligent photocopiers that duplicate a document and route it to a file and imultaneous desktop video-conferencing from multiple locations, sending voice and data simultaneously over the same communications channel. With the explosion of leisure activities available, people play more expansively. There are hundreds of movies available on demand at home, virtual-reality games, a growth in the number of channels delivered by direct satellite television, videophones that link faces with voices, interactive television for audience participation, instant access to worldwide entertainment and travel information and interactive telegaming with international partners (Texas Instruments 1996). This paper has considered developments in electronic miniaturisation, robotics, digitisation and information technology with its social implications for human values and the future of work. It has argued that we have entering a post-modern period and are entering a post-market era in which life will no longer be structured around work in the traditional sense, there will be greater freedom and independent living, paid employment will be de-emphasised and our lifestyle will be leisure orientated. I have argued that the social goal of full employment in the traditional sense s no longer appropriate, necessary or even possible, that both government and society will need to recognise the effects of technology on social structure and re-organise resources to be distributed more equally if extreme social unrest, inequity, trauma and possible civil disruption is to be avoided. I foresee a scenario of a sustainable integrated global community in which there will be some form of barter but cash will be largely eliminated, money will be virtual. A minimal amount of people will be involved and enjoy some forms of high tech activity, while the vast majority will have a vocation that s essentially creative and enjoyable perhaps involving the arts and music with a spirituality that involves deep respect and care for the natural world with new forms of individual and group interaction. There will be minimal forms of world central democratic government. Vast forms of infrastructure will no longer be required as citizens will largely be technologically independent. Most communication and interaction will be instant and conducted from home, office or public terminal. There will be new forms and ways of living, new family structures that may consist of larger and smaller groups. A comfortable, pleasurable and leisure based lifestyle in which all the essentials and wants will be automatically provided through the processes of the largely self- sustaining and self evolving technology. Rifkin (1995) has a similar view, and concludes that he believes the road to a near-workerless economy is within sight and that road could head for a safe haven or a terrible abyss, it all depends on how well civilisation prepares for the post-market era. He too is optimistic and suggests that the end of work could signal the beginning of a great social transformation, a rebirth in the human spirit.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

What Is Democratic Consolidation

What Is Democratic Consolidation One of the most important inquiries that should be made is on how democratic consolidation can be understood especially from the political point of view. It is apparent that research has revealed that there is no serviceable or specific definition of the concept â€Å"democratic consolidation† (Schneider 215).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on What Is Democratic Consolidation? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the concept has become common in comparative politics whereby scholars have been in haste to derive a fully satisfying definition. However, it is important to understand that democratic consolidation denotes the transition that occurs in liberal institutions to a point that leaders conform to democratic rule (Schneider 215). While the latter statement may appear holistic and largely appealing in any given democratic setting, it is imperative to note that it may be hardly be achieved as an ideal s ituation in political governance. From a careful review of literature, it has been confirmed that democratic consolidation is the means by which young democracies mature to ensure that they do not risk reverting to authoritarianism (Lim 117). Notably, this process is mainly underpinned to promote the ideology that political actors embrace democracy, a factor that will make political institutions secure against the threats of authoritarianism (Lim 220). Therefore, it is arguable that this concept is meant to foster stabilization of regimes by eliminating challenges that can bring about breakdown of the social fabric. However, the concept of democratic consolidation especially among young and growing democracies may still be a mirage and an idea from reality. It is vital to note that democratic consolidation entails numerous political aspects such as diffusion of democratic rules, legitimization, neutralizing anti-political actors and fostering civilian supremacy (Schneider 215). If t he aforementioned elements are to be embraced and indeed implemented in any political governance, then it implies that a lot of political goodwill ought to exist. Moreover, it also entails eradication of authoritarian enclaves and stabilizing electoral rules in order to avoid election irregularities bearing in mind that no single democratic government can boast of democracy if its leaders are not freely and fairly elected into political offices. Research has revealed that the process cannot be complete without decentralizing state power and establishing judicial reforms (Andreas 94). In line with this, political actors also need to introduce mechanisms that will foster direct democracy in order to safeguard the functional interests of the civilians. Notably, different scholars have dissimilar understanding of the concept (Lim 118). In this case, the meaning and usage of the concept basically depends on the context and goals in which the political actors stand for (Schneider 215). At this point, it is also worthy to analyze some of the major characteristics of regimes in the â€Å"gray zone† especially in regards to the principle of democratic consolidation. It is important to note that regimes in the ‘gray zone† are those that are in the third wave of democratization (Rapley 35). From an empirical point of view, it is evident that these regimes have not yet experienced full transition from authoritarianism into full democratization. Therefore, in terms of the ideals put forward by the political ideology of democracy, they are largely at standstill and majority of such governments often reverse towards authoritarianism. It is arguable that these regimes cease to become outright authoritarians yet they are not fully democratic.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, it may not be automatic for all the regimes in the Ã¢â‚¬Ë œgray zones’ to revert to autocratic rule bearing in mind that in the event strong democratic institutions are set up, the likelihood of reverting to authoritative rule may be null and void altogether. In addition, these regimes appear ambiguous due to the fact that they are semi-authoritarian (Lim 221). In this case, these regimes have liberal political institutions that uphold political liberty. Nevertheless, they still portray some traits of authoritarian rule. This kind of scenario has been the case with certain young economies although a similar scenario may be replicated even in well developed economies. The other characteristic is that such regimes give little space for political competition, a factor that significantly decimates government’s accountability and transparency when executing its roles and responsibilities. Research reveals that they avail limited space for press freedom to function freely. Besides, political parties with divergent or opposing views are not easily accommodated in such regimes since in most cases, they command majority rule and as such they may dilute the strengths of ruling parties (Rapley 95). Needless to say, the latter scenario is what may be described as political immaturity. In addition to this, since these regimes are not fully democratic, they are often unable to produce effective governments. This is due to the fact that democratic processes of electing a government are often manipulated by authoritarian traits that adversely violate the basic tenets of transparent governance. Then, why would it be difficult for regimes to move out of this zone? Empirical evidences have shown that it is normally difficult for ‘gray zone’ regimes to move out of this type of governance. One of the possible factors that make it pretty cumbersome for the regimes to get out of the zone is due to deep-rooted individual differences. Notably, after the end of the Cold war, there emerged leading intellectuals who w ere against the outfits of liberal democracy. In line with this, most of political actors in such regimes have cultural bias on the concept of liberal democracy (Rapley 102). Moreover, there are only few governments that are willing to abandon authoritarian rule and adopt democracy. In this case, they fear strict limitations imposed by democracy. Research has revealed that there is a possibility that ‘gray zone’ regimes will definitely increase in number since most states have had problems coping with political transitions (Andreas 99).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on What Is Democratic Consolidation? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, countries that have embraced democratic consolidation have ended up having weak democracies. In this case, majority of world states prefer semi-authoritarian regimes, a factor that makes it difficult for them to shift from the ‘gray zone’. Further more, it is important that there should be moderate political conflicts in states. According to Lim (235), consolidation of democracy cannot take place with frequent confrontations. Therefore, it is important to ensure that there is peace or else the civilians will disregard the values and interests of democracy. Apparently, there are myriads of conditions that are necessary for democratic consolidation to take effect. The factors that affect consolidation of democracy should be realigned by all costs (Lim 221). It is agreeable that most of these factors are non-economic such as illiteracy and squatting levels of human development that is common in poor economies. Therefore, one of the essential conditions for consolidating democracy is by ensuring that there is effective human development through public awareness in order to strengthen social cohesion. Research has revealed that there is need to eliminate all forms of procedures, traits, expectations and institutions that seem to b e incompatible with the outright ideas of democracy. In line with this, new institutions and procedures should be established in order to create a favorable aura for consolidating democracy (Andreas 101). It is important to have numerous and political actors participating in politics and decisions who will win other people to embrace the new regime. Another important element to note is that new institutions should establish the act of favorable political balance through power sharing. This wills lure civilians to shift their mind from the previous regimes. Poverty has been considered as a major social-economic problem, a factor that is attributed to its extended negative impacts that directly and indirectly threatens the very existence of human beings. Sandoval, Rank and Hirschl argue that the state of poverty in most places in the world today is very shocking. Poverty has also raised deep concerns over its increasing levels and equally high resilience of negative implications (720) . The question that lingers in many minds is whether different states across the globe are playing an effective role in addressing the rising levels of poverty. As this paper analyzes, rationalists are of the opinion that the practices and policies adopted in most states have greatly contributed towards poverty. While some may seem to oppose their own views and quickly defend their actions, steps to address the underlying threats posed by poverty are yet to be seen.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Definitely, various states across the world have played profound roles in promotion and fighting of poverty. Lenagala and Ram argue that the rising levels of poverty in many states today should be viewed as a factor that is contributed by existing leadership (923). Many nations wallowing in the miasma of absolute poverty almost unanimously share a common factor called poor leadership. A state whose leadership is pitiable lacks the ability to effectively prioritize essential needs, effectively allocate resources and create an ego-centric model that facilitates economic growth. While some opponents of this view may argue that poverty is a personal aspect and individuals must bear the responsibilities of their destinies, it is important to note that a state should be concerned with the welfare of its citizens. Take for instance, a country like North Korea where the development and welfare of citizens has been given special priority. The practice promoted in this state is that its leade rship has put the affairs of its citizens third after creation of weapons and their acquisition. Therefore, citizens in this nation are left to fend for themselves and most often forced to go without basic needs. Environmentalism is becoming less realistic to the present states as focus towards conservation, the imminent dangers to the planet and its occupants, as well as methods to address them fail to take the urgency required to save the planet and its occupants. The endless cry of people in hunger, continued loss and extinction of biodiversity, strange and incurable infections, and loss of lives from warfare are a clear indication of individual and administrative sycophancies on environmental concerns. The major question whose answer appears to be elusive to many is why states today do not clearly conceptualize the damage they are doing to themselves, citizens and most importantly, to the future generations. Besides poor leadership as indicated above, Icel argues that many gover nments have ignored the importance of conserving the environment, a factor that has seen a rise in pollution, global warming and subsequent poverty (500). When the Kyoto Protocol was established, the globe got a sigh of relief that the disaster had at last gotten a long term solution. However, the force that initially propelled the establishment of Kyoto Protocol appeared to slowly but surely fade away as more countries clung to their conservative models that are highly selfish and sycophantic. Even after the problem was justified scientifically, Yanagisawa explains that many countries’ leadership saw the issue as a carefully drawn model to stall their development (316). In the US for example, administrations over the years have failed to gather enough political goodwill to sign the protocol while most implementing countries fail to their mandated emissions reduction levels (Icel 505). Though countries such as the US indicate efforts being undertaken to address global warming , accruing efforts are largely undermined by its continued emission of green house gases. Other countries such as China have hidden under the umbrella of being developing nations largely because by the time Kyoto Protocol was drawn, the country was not grouped in the industrialized category. Indeed, just like the US and China, many other states lack the much needed proactive approach that can be used to identify future environmental problems and subsequent poverty levels that could befall nations. Sandoval, Rank and Hirschl observe that pollution is one of the greatest threats to environmental conservation and sustainability (720). Many states have however turned away from acknowledging pollution and its effects on poverty as a way of either avoiding accruing responsibilities or evading related complexities. Environmentalism requires society to be able to interpret the interconnectedness of the different spheres of the environment (aquatic, lithosphere, atmospheric, and the biologic al). Despite the fact that over 2.8 billion people globally lack access to clean water and basic sanitation, states continue to heavily pollute the remaining water resources. The ever rising number of industries releases some of their wastes into water systems and ultimately affects its quality for domestic, agricultural and other uses. This problem is metaphysically rhetoric in that either from industries, agricultural practices, or even domestic chores, pollutants continues being released into the environment at rates higher than ever experienced in the past. This discussion would not be complete without mentioning the high global poverty levels that have plagued the globe for long. Jeppesen explains that to poor people, the immediate concerns are neither conservation nor environmentalism (490). However, they are mostly concerned with basic survival that puts the global and state resources into great pressure. A good example is the continued use of biomass as the main source of fu el in most developing countries. This coupled with intensified mechanization of deforestation has resulted into extremely high rates of forest cover removal. Jeppesen estimates that about 13 million hectares of land are cut down every year (500). Even if it is for reasons of alleviating poor economic status or the need to promote greater development, the role played by many states only enhances poverty levels. To sum up, the ability to develop effective poverty eradication mechanisms by states forms a major pillar that will support the fight against poverty. One would surely agree with rationalists in the sense that many states have overlooked the importance of eradicating poverty in a more holistic manner. One of the major efforts that cannot go unnoticed in fighting poverty is facilitating good governance. Andreas, Schedler. What Is Democratic Consolidation? Journal of Democracy, 9.2 (1998): 91-107. Print. Icel, John. Why Poverty Remains High: The role of income growth, economic inequality, and changes in family structure, 1949-1999. Demography 40.3 (2003): 499-519. Print. Jeppesen, Sandra. From the War on Poverty to the War on the poor: knowledge, power, and subject positions in anti-poverty discourses. Canadian Journal of Communication 34.3 (2009): 487-508. Print. Lenagala, Chakrangi and Rati, Ram. Growth elasticity of poverty: estimates from new data. International Journal of Social Economics 37.12 (2010): 923-932. Print. Lim, Timothy. Doing comparative politics: An introduction to approaches and issues. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2005. Print. Rapley, John. Understanding development: Theory and practice in the Third World. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. 2007. Print. Sandoval, Daniel, Mark Rank and Thomas, Hirschl. The increasing risk of poverty across the American life course. Demography 46.4 (2009): 717-737. Print. Schneider, Ben Ross. â€Å"Democratic consolidations: Some broad comparisons and sweeping arguments.† Latin American Research Review, 3 0.2(1995): 215. Print. Yanagisawa, Anton. Poverty: social control over our labor force. International Journal of Social Economics 38.4 (2011): 316-329. Print.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

War of 1812 Causes

War of 1812 Causes The War of 1812 is generally thought to have been provoked by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the Britains Royal Navy. And while impressment was a major factor behind the declaration of war by the United States against Britain, there were other significant issues fueling the American march toward war. During the first three decades of American independence there was a general feeling that the British government had very little respect for the young United States. And during the Napoleonic Wars the British government actively sought to meddle with - or completely suppress - American trade with European nations. British arrogance and hostility went so far as to include a deadly attack by the British frigate HMS Leopard upon USS Chesapeake in 1807. The Chesapeake and Leopard affair, which began when the British officer boarded the American ship demanding to seize sailors believed to be deserters from British ships, nearly triggered a war. In late 1807, President Thomas Jefferson, seeking to avoid war while calming public outcry against British insults to American sovereignty, had enacted the Embargo Act of 1807. The law succeeded in avoiding a war with Britain at the time. However, the Embargo Act was generally seen as a failed policy, as turned out to be more harmful to the United States than to its intended targets, Britain and France. When James Madison became president in early 1809 he also sought to avoid war with Britain. But British actions, and a continuing drumbeat for war in the U.S. Congress, seemed destined to make make a new war with Britain unavoidable. The slogan Free Trade and Sailors Rights became a rallying cry. Madison, Congress, and the Move Toward War In early June 1812 President James Madison sent a message to Congress in which he listed complaints about British behavior toward America. Madison raised several issues: ImpressmentContinual harassment of American commerce by British warshipsBritish laws, known as Orders in Council, declaring blockades against American ships bound for European portsAttacks by savages on one of our extensive frontiers believed to be instigated by British troops in Canada The U.S. Congress was being steered at the time by an aggressive faction of young legislators in the House of Representatives known as the War Hawks. Henry Clay, a leader of the War Hawks, was a young member of Congress from Kentucky. Representing the views of Americans living in the West, Clay believed that war with Britain would not only restore American prestige, it would also provide a great benefit in territory. An openly stated goal of the western War Hawks was for the United States to invade and seize Canada. And there was a common, though deeply misguided, belief that it would be easy to achieve. (Once the war began, American actions along the Canadian border tended to be frustrating at best, and Americans never came close to conquering the British territory.) The War of 1812 has often been called Americas Second War for Independence, and that title is appropriate. The young United States government was determined to make Britain respect it. The United States Declared War In June 1812 Following the message sent by President Madison, the United States Senate and the House of Representatives held votes on whether to go to war. The vote in the House of Representatives was held on June 4, 1812, and members voted 79 to 49 to go to war. In the House vote, the members of Congress supporting the war tended to be from the South and West, and those opposed from the Northeast. The U.S. Senate, on June 17, 1812, voted 19 to 13 to go to war. In the Senate the vote also tended to be along regional lines, with most of the votes against the war coming from the Northeast. With so many members of Congress voting against going to war, the War of 1812 was always controversial. The official Declaration of War was signed by President James Madison on June 18, 1812. It read as follows: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That war be and is hereby declared to exist between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the dependencies thereof, and the United States of America and their territories; and the President of the United States is hereby authorized to use the whole land and naval force of the United States, to carry the same into effect, and to issue private armed vessels of the United States commissions or letters of marque and general reprisal, in such form as he shall think proper, and under the seal of the United States, against the vessels, goods, and effects of the government of the said United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the subjects thereof. American Preparations While the war not declared until late June 1812, the United States government had been actively making preparations for the outbreak of war. In early 1812 the Congress had passed a law actively calling for volunteers for the U.S. Army, which had remained fairly small in the years following independence. American forces under the command of General William Hull had started marching from Ohio toward Fort Detroit (site of present day Detroit, Michigan) in late May 1812. The plan was for Hulls forces to invade Canada, and the proposed invasion force was already in position by the time war was declared. (The invasion proved to be a disaster, however, when Hull surrendered Fort Detroit to the British that summer.) American naval forces had also been prepared for the outbreak of war. And given the slowness of communication, some American ships in the early summer of 1812 attacked British ships whose commanders had not yet learned of the official outbreak of the war. Widespread Opposition to the War The fact that the war was not universally popular proved to be a problem, especially when the early phases of the war, such as the military fiasco at Fort Detroit, went badly. Even before the fighting began, opposition to the war caused major problems. In Baltimore a riot broke out when a vocal anti-war faction was attacked. In other cities speeches against the war were popular. A young lawyer in New England, Daniel Webster, delivered an eloquent address about the war on July 4, 1812. Webster noted that he opposed the war, but as it was now national policy, he was obligated to support it. Though patriotism often ran high, and was boosted by some of the successes of the underdog U.S. Navy, the general feeling in some parts of the country, particularly New England, was that the war had been a bad idea. As it became obvious that the war would be costly and may prove to be impossible to win militarily, the desire to find a peaceful end to the conflict intensified. American officials were eventually dispatched to Europe to work toward a negotiated settlement, the result of which was the Treaty of Ghent. When the war officially ended with the signing of the treaty, there was no clear winner. And, on paper, both sides admitted that things would return to how they had been before hostilities began. However, in a realistic sense, the United States had proven itself to be an independent nation capable of defending itself. And Britain, perhaps from having noticed that the American forces seemed to become stronger as the war went on, made no further attempts to undermine American sovereignty. And one result of the war, which was noted by Albert Gallatin, the secretary of the treasury, was that the controversy around it, and the way the nation came together, had essentially united the nation.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Theory of Cognitive Dissonance & apply it on abortion in USA.2 Research Paper

Theory of Cognitive Dissonance & apply it on abortion in USA.2 - Research Paper Example (Chasek, 2010) Further understanding needs to be established on the theory to bring out the idea that this is a theory that is basically adopted form social psychology. From the title, individuals with basic knowledge on Psychology can draw out the conclusion that that cognitive stands for the mind or the process of thinking while dissonance stands for conflict or inconsistency. From this point it is safe to say that cognitive dissonance comes as a result of psychological conflict arising from upholding two or more parallel beliefs that work in an incompatible mode. This theory has been embraced by the experts in many fields by molding it to fit into their own requirements. An example is in the field of communication alongside various other disciplines. . (McLeod, 2008). This theory is quite the famous one because it manages to displace all forms of previous engagements in form of conditioning by completely viewing as rather purposeful decision makers by majorly opting to balance the beliefs. The mind should therefore be conditioned in such a way that in case one is presented with decision making situations that create dissonance, then one is supposed to apply strategies of dissonance reduction so as to basically regain relevant equilibrium mostly in situations whereby the decision making would have great effect on the self esteem of the individual involved. (Barker, 2003) The theory of dissonance applies in various situations that involve the change of attitude and its formation. The theory has the capability of manipulating individuals to embrace certain behaviors so as to influence the people to change their own attitudes. This quality makes the theory and the thoughts around it relevant for problem solving and decision making. A real life situation as an example is a situation whereby a driver holds on to the beliefs that he does not require seat belts when driving. Then the reality dawns on him when he gets the news that a friend had an accident and lost h is life simply because he had no seat belt on. The dissonance of this driver may possibly be reduced by actually completely altering behavior and hence starting to apply the use of the seat belt because he now finds it necessary to avoid impending implications that may rise if he doesn’t use it. The driver can also embrace the idea that he needs to find an alternative since his hatred for the seat belts in general could still be outstanding. Then he may seek relevant information on available alternatives in the market and fall for the airbags. Therefore the impetus to actually bring dissonance down majorly relies on the amount or magnitude of the held dissonance (McLeod, 2008). The dissonance in us is mostly always important and stronger when we have a belief about something that we hold dear but we go ahead and do something completely parallel to that belief. An example is when we believe that somebody is good, the he goes on to do something that is really bad, then what we have in the mind is cognitive dissonance that results in the kind of discomfort we feel from the entire idea. Dissonance will increase perpendicularly with the level of importance that we give to a certain subject, the strength by which the two conflicting feelings or thought feel the parallel forces against each

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

IMC Plan-How might IMC be used in an organization looking to raise Essay

IMC Plan-How might IMC be used in an organization looking to raise their profile relating to carbon consciousness among its consumers - Essay Example verall business and if implemented together or individually, these strategies will be very helpful in raising the overall profile of the company relating to carbon consciousness among its consumers. The term Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC), refers to a complete and holistic view of the marketing communication. The main aim of this is to provide a consistent message using media. The main idea of this concept is to use a combination of online as well as offline marketing channels and to provide complete marketing communication. The main aim of this study is to provide a complete explanation of the concept of IMC and to also examine the relationship with the promotional mix. The paper also aims at understanding the different advertising media and providing an evaluation of the current trends. Also, in order to be able to portray the skills related to this topic, a company has been chosen based on which a media plan has been developed and designed to meet the needs of the organization. The company chosen for this study is GDS International. The paper will firstly provide an overview of the company and a background of the industry, following which the target audiences will be analyzed. Based on the study, a media plan will be developed for GDS International to help raise the focus relating to carbon consciousness among its consumers. GDS International is a publishing company that specializes in journals on subjects like industrial and business management and caters mainly to markets of Asia Pacific, China, CIS, Eastern Europe, North America and Australia. The company was founded in 1993 and in the current time has over 40 leading titles on a number of different fields. The company was started by Spencer Green the Chairman. The company apart from publishing also organizes a number of events on different fields like business, financial, food, IT service management and telecoms (fixed and mobile) (Monster). The company works on a combination printed

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Notes on How to Write a Good Essay Example for Free

Notes on How to Write a Good Essay Robert Cormier’s book ‘Heroes’ opens by introducing us to the main character Francis Cassavant, a ex-military soldier, wounded by a grenade from when he fought in World War Two. There are three main characters in this book; Francis, Larry and Nicole. Throughout this book Cormier gives an insight into how all these characters interlock, with Francis’ mission, to kill Larry LaSalle. In the first chapter of this book Cormier introduces us to the main character of Francis Cassavant, and how he is presented as a hero; this chapter is based entirely on his appearance after a grenade attack from when he fought in the war. Francis’ appearance has obviously changed dramatically as he refers to his face as a ‘gargoyle’ and that he has ‘no face’. Francis also refers to himself as the ‘hunchback of Notre Dame’ and that he is ugly with ‘no ears to speak of’ and ‘the absence of my nose’. This suggests that that he has been in a terrible accident and instantly makes you empathise, and feel sorry for him, but as you further progress through the book you see that maybe that Francis isn’t the hero and as innocent as he seems at first glance. To add further detail Cormier describes his nostrils as ‘two small caves’. This portrays his face as almost like a monster or a mutant. We can infer from the text that Francis has low self esteem and has little or no confidence in himself and when his doctor says ‘don’t expect anyone to pick you for a dance’ doesn’t really help with the fact when he knows he’s ‘not normal’. Francis hides his face with scarves, a hat and a bandage fastened with safety pins, hiding his face tell us that he does not want to be recognised or perhaps to be seen by anyone he knows in Frenchtown. People glance at me in surprise’ and ‘I don’t blame them’ shows that Francis is obviously repulsed and disgusted by the way he looks but isn’t afraid to say so, and also if he looks terrifying and repulsive, he isn’t going to be thought of as a hero. After in depth of describing the physical description of Francis, Cormier then moves on to the main plot, Francis’ mission to kill Larry LaSalle, dropping in little hints and sending up an ‘our father’ and ‘ ail Mary’ and ‘glory be’ for Larry LaSalle, and sending up prayers for Nicole Renard, instantly bringing all the three main characters together but still keeping them separate and not knowing why they are interlocked and how everything is more complicated then it seems behind the eyes of Francis, Larry and Nicole, and how Francis and possibly Larry could either be heroes or cowards. Making Francis seem like an innocent war hero is an interesting and unusual move to make because it makes you feel sorry for Francis at the beginning but as the story unfolds you see that there is more than meets the eye about Francis and how his ‘heroic status’ isn’t as heroic as it seems. One of the ways Cormier presents the concept of heroes is in chapter nine, the chapter when Larry LaSalle reveals he is going off to the ‘fight the japs’ in the Second World War. So when the news first broke that Japan had bombed Pearl Harbour in an attack, a wave of frenzy and fear washed over America. People had ‘patriotic fever’ meaning that they weren’t just feeling patriotic about their country; it was as though a fever had taken over and had plagued through everyone. That day Larry LaSalle stood before everyone in the wreck centre, his ‘movie-star smile gone replace with grim faced determination’ he was ready to go and ‘fight the japs’ he announced that he was going to war, he had ‘anger that we had never seen before flashing in his eyes’. From the quote we realise that Larry is passionate about fighting for his country, but from the way he displays and announces that he is leaving and going to war and when he says ‘none of that kids’ (referring to when the kids clap when he announces he’s going to war) ‘I’m just doing what millions of others are doing’ he almost says it in a way that he wants to be recognised even more as a hero, and he also tries to make it seem as though it’s not important about what he’s doing, but by the way he flaunts it he makes it seem like he’s doing some great and powerful favour for America and the people of Frenchtown. This shows the concept of heroes because as soon as the opportunity comes along to be a hero, Larry will grab it in an instant and makes sure that everyone knows about it and about how it’s making him a hero. This chapter explains the events from Larry returning home, to the episode that happens at the end of the chapter and that is when we come to realise Francis’ hatred for Larry LaSalle. When the crowd are waiting for Larry’s arrival, we see that he is described as ‘Lt. Lawrence LaSalle, US Marines Corps, holder of the silver star’ from this quote we can immediately see that he is being shown as a hero. He is also the star of ‘newsreels’ and ‘radiobroadcasts’ making his seem very important; like a vip – almost a god as far as the town are concerned. They describe him as ‘a bright pied piper’ saying that he can get the towns children to follow him. It shows that he is quite a powerful and a big role model in the children of Frenchtown and maybe not only with children, the adults also seem to love, worship and adore him. In Larry’s actual arrival those there to greet him add the heroic atmosphere. The town goes to greet him at the station, adults, old people and children from the wreck centre are all there to meet this so called hero. When he arrives you instantly remember his ‘movie star smile’ revealing his popularity and confidence. ‘We cheered’ this shows that he is loved and respected by his fellow people and people look up to him as a ‘hero’. You could still see ‘a touch of Fred Astaire in his walk’ implying that he still is the same old Larry, but now ‘lethal’. Him being described as lethal implies that he has changed from coming back from the war; he’s thinner, sleeker. My war hero’ people shout from the crowd. People are proud of him for fighting for their country, they really respect him. ‘Ribbons and medals on his chest’ are a visible representation of him being a hero. Physically the descriptions of Larry show how much he has changed from being a cool dancer to a ‘slen der, knife like killing machine’ he has now changed into a ‘knife-like’ and ‘lethal’ with sharper details, the hero that we saw before has now become a ‘superhero’ in the town’s eyes. ‘You are our celebration’ the mayor proclaims to Larry, emphasising Larry’s heroic status. He is now the town’s hero when he is given ‘the silver key to the city’ people would immediately think that he is of high heroic status is the mayor gives him something so important to the city. When he gives his big speech he says ‘we need to keep the world safe for these young people’ saying this he is almost trying to cover up for what he does later. At the celebration, towards the end Larry tries to get Francis to leave the wreck centre, so he can have ‘one last dance’ with Nicole, he says that ‘this is important’ and he manipulates Francis. Just me and her alone’ makes it feel like something terrible is going to happen. So Francis leaves, ‘I’ve got to go, you and Larry stay. One last dance’ his words sounding false as though Larry placed them in his mouth. She wants him to ‘stay and watch’ but he leaves, to his and Nicole’s misfortune. When the attack happens, it shows just how unheroic and cowardly both Larry and Francis are. ‘In the shadows of the hallway’ Francis lurks waiting for Nicole to leave the Wreck centre, but then Larry does the most inexplicable, disgusting thing, he sexually assaulted her. A sound that could have been a moan and a rustle of clothing’ even though Francis knew something was going on in there, he still couldn’t pluck the courage to go see if his girlfriend was alright. When she ‘stumbles out of the hallway’ she sees Francis, and he saw ‘the betrayal of her in her eyes’ as she runs away, Francis hears Larry, this now shows how wrong people were about Larry and about how he is not a hero but something of the complete opposite ‘whistling the tune-‘dancing in the dark’ as though he had done nothing wrong, that this was no rmal. It’s amazing that the heart makes no noise when it cracks’ Francis is truly heartbroken, and it shows just how cowardly Francis and Larry can both be. In chapter 14, we see how much of a hero Francis could be when we finally get to the part where he goes to kill Larry LaSalle, Larry is no longer a hero. When he sees Larry you can see that Larry’s physical appearance has changed drastically as he’s ‘yellowed with age’, a bit ‘feeble now’, and ‘fragile now’, with ‘white hands’. Larry is not innocent’ and no longer a hero. Francis explains his unannounced visit, with a gun in his hands. Larry ‘rises slowly’ from his chair as Francis begins to question him. ‘You were our hero’ Larry was their hero, he did everything for the people of Frenchtown and now his heroic status had just fallen through the roof, ‘ no more sweet young things’ Larry says, saying as though its normal to sexually assault someone who’s young. Even there heat is sweet’ he says giving Francis even more of a reason to kill him, but he falters when Larry says ‘does that on sin wipe away all the good things. ’ He falters because he’s probably thinking about what he did for him, with the Table tennis and if it wasn’t for Larry renewing the Wreck Centre, Francis would never had been with Nicole, with all these mixed emotions and feelings Francis walks away. But when Francis walks away ‘the sound of a pistol shot cracks in the air’ Larry LaSalle had shot himself. Cormier presents the idea of heroes in his novel, one by setting it in the time of World War Two, which has lots of potential for heroes because theirs the concept of being a soldier. He also presents the idea of heroes by making two characters seem like heroes at first glance but then stripping them of their heroic status by things that come to haunt them from the past that had never been dealt with. Also with Nicole Renard and how she is the innocent victim in this and how one incident made both Francis and Larry cowards and very un-heroic.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

E-commerce :: Business and Management Studies

E-commerce Unless you have been living under a rock for the last two years, you have heard about e-commerce! And you have heard about it from several different angles. For example: You have heard about all of the companies that offer e-commerce because you have been bombarded by their TV and radio ads. You have read all of the news stories about the shift to e-commerce and the hype that has developed around e-commerce companies. You have seen the huge valuations that web companies get in the stock market, even when they don't make a profit. And you may have actually purchased something on the web, so you have direct personal experience with e-commerce. Still, you may feel like you don't understand e-commerce at all. What is all the hype about? Why the huge valuations? And most importantly, is there a way for you to participate? If you have an e-commerce idea, how might you get started implementing it? If you have had questions like these, then this edition of How Stuff Works will help out by exposing you to the entire e-commerce space. Let's have a look! Commerce Before we get into a complete discussion of e-commerce, it is helpful to have a good mental image of plain old commerce first. If you understand commerce, then e-commerce is an easy extension. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary defines commerce as follows: com.merce n [MF, fr. L commercium, fr. com- + merc-, merx merchandise] (1537) 1: social intercourse: interchange of ideas, opinions, or sentiments 2: the exchange or buying and selling of commodities on a large scale involving transportation from place to place 3: sexual intercourse We tend to be interested in the second definition, but that third one is interesting and unexpected - maybe that's what all of the hype is about! So commerce is, quite simply, the exchange of goods and services, usually for money. We see commerce all around us in in millions of different forms. When you buy something at a grocery store or at Wal-mart you are participating in commerce. In the same way, if you cart half of your possessions onto your front lawn for a yard sale, you are participating in commerce from a different angle. If you go to work each day for a company that produces a product, that is yet another link in the chain of commerce. When you think about commerce in these different ways, you instinctively recognize several different roles: Buyers - these are people with money who want to purchase a good or service. Sellers - these are the people who offer goods and services to buyers. Sellers are generally recognized in two different forms: retailers who